Dating and the orthodox church
The dispute was not settled until Ignatius died in 878.
However, perhaps the major cause of estrangement was the addition of the so-called Filioque clause (Latin: ‘and the son’) to the Nicene creed.
Some of the reasons for this included: * The head of the Coptic church in Egypt and the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria & all Africa are also styled with the title ‘Pope’.
A significant disagreement between Rome and Constantinople took place in 858, with the appointment of Photius (c. His successor (Ignatius I) had been deposed by the eastern emperor Michael III (839-867), but Ignatius refused to step aside and his case was taken up by Pope Nicholas I (c. Photius found himself excommunicated by the Pope in 867 and he replied in kind.
These churches are called Oriental Orthodox or Non-Chalcedonian to distinguish them from the Eastern Orthodox churches.
They are found mainly in the following countries: * This is sometimes called the ‘Chalcedonian Definition’ with the full text available on the Creeds of Christianity page.
The separation became more intense until in 1054, Pope Leo IX and the Patriarch of Constantinople, (Michael I) both excommunicated each other.
We exhort our faithful to take an active part in this process, through prayer and through significant gestures….“ With regard to the ecumenical movement within Christianity, the Orthodox church is a member of the World Council of Churches, which also contains most of the main Protestant denominations.
Due to their belief in the one nature, the Oriental Orthodox churches were labelled ‘Monophysite’ (physis is the Greek term used for ‘nature’).
The label is disavowed by Oriental Orthodox Christians, who prefer the term ‘Miaphysite’.
The warmth and friendliness of the meeting resulted in a joint declaration.
The extract below indicates the commitment of both churches to work together for unity: “…As far as relations between the Church of Rome and the Church of Constantinople are concerned, we cannot fail to recall the solemn ecclesial act effacing the memory of the ancient anathemas which for centuries had a negative effect on our Churches.